Selasa, 15 November 2011

Pinsip kerja motor induksi tiga fasa

Motor induksi terdiri atas dua bagian utama yaitu rotor dan stator. Ada dua jenis rotor yaitu rotor sangkar dan rotor belitan. Stator dibuat dari sejumlah stampings dengan slots untuk membawa gulungan tiga fase. Gulungan ini dilingkarkan untuk sejumlah kutub yang tertentu.
Stator merupakan bagian yang diam dari motor induksi tiga fasa, pada bagian stator terdapat beberapa slot yang merupakan tempat kawat (konduktor) dari tiga kumparan tiga fasa yang disebut kumparan stator, yang masing-masing kumparan mendapatkan suplai arus tiga fasa, maka pada kumparan tersebut segera timbul medan putar. Dengan adanya medan magnet putar pada kumparan stator akan mengakibatkan rotor berputar, hal ini terjadi karena adanya induksi magnet dengan kecepatan putar rotor sinkron dan kecepatan putar stator.
Konstruksi stator terdiri dari :
  1. Rumah stator yang terdiri dari besi tuang
  2. Inti stator yang terbuat dari besi lunak atau baja silikon
  3. Terdapat slot untuk menempatkan kawat belitan
  4. Belian stator yang terbuat dari tembaga
Pinsip kerja motor induksi tiga fasa
Gambar  Konstruksi stator


Pinsip kerja motor induksi tiga fasa

Gambar  Bentuk belitan stator

Ada dua macam jenis Rotor pada motor induksi yaitu rotor sangkar dan rotor belitan. Rotor sangkar (squirrel cage rotor); kawat rotor terdiri dari batang-batang tembaga yang berat, aluminium atau alloy yang dimasukkan ke dalam inti rotor. Masing-masing ujung kawat dihubungkan singkat dengan ‘end-ring’.
Motor induksi dengan rotor belitan mempunyai rotor dengan belitan kumparan tiga fasa sama seperti kumparan stator. Kumparan stator dan rotor juga mempunyai jumlah kutub yang sama. Penambahan tahanan luar sampai harga tertentu, dapat membuat kopel mula mencapai harga kopel maksimmnya. Kopel mula yang besar memang diperlukan pada saat start. Motor induksi jenis ini memungkinkan penambahan (pengaturan) tahanan luar. Tahanan luar yang dapat diatur ini dihubungkan ke rotor melalui cincin. Selain untuk menghasilkan kopel mula yang besar, tahanan luar dapat diperlukan untuk membatasi arus mula yang besar pada saat start. Disamping itu dengan mengubah – ubah tahanan luar, kecepatan motor dapat diatur.







Pinsip kerja motor induksi tiga fasa
Gambar Rotor belitan


Pinsip kerja motor induksi tiga fasa
Gambar Rotor sangkar bajing

Pinsip kerja motor induksi tiga fasa

Perputaran motor pada mesin arus bolak – balik ditimbulkan oleh adanya medan putar (fluks yang berputar) yang dihasilkan dalam kumparan statornya. Medan putar ini terjadi apabila kumparan stator dihubungkan dalam fasa banyak umumnya fasa 3. hubungan dapat berupa hubungan bintang atau delta.



Ada beberapa prinsip kerja motor induksi:
1. Apabila sumber tegangan 3 fasa dipasang pada kumparan medan (stator), timbullah medan putar dengan kecepatan ................rpm dengan fs = frekuensi stator (Stator line frequency) atau frekuensi jala-jala dan p = jumlah kutub pada motor.
2. Medan stator tersebut akan memotong batang konduktor pada rotor.
3. Akibatnya pda kumparan jangkar (rotor) timbul tegangan induksi (ggl).
4. Karena kumparan jangkar merupakan kumparan tertutup, ggl (E) akan menghasilkan arus (I).
5. Adanya arus (I) didalam medan magnet menimbulkan gaya (F) pada rotor.
6. Bila kopel mula yng dihasilkan oleh gaya (F) pada rotor besar akan memikul kopel beban, rotor akan berputar searah dengan medan putar stator.
7. Seperti telah dijelaskan sebelumnya bahwa tegangan induksi timbul karena terpotongnya batang konduktor (rotor) oleh medan putar stator. Artinya agar tegangan terinduksi diperlukan adanya perbedaan relatif antara kecepatan medan stator dengan kecepatan berputar rotor (nr).
8. Perbedaan kecepatan antara dan disebut slip (S) dinyatakan dengan:

9. Bila = , tegangan tidak akan terinduksi dan arus tidak mengalir pada kumparan jangkar rotor, dengan demikian tidak dihasilkan kopel. Kopel motor akan ditimbulkan apabila lebih kecil dari .
10. Dilihat dari cara kerjanya, motor induksi disebut juga sebagai motor tak serempak atau asinkron.

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